by Eric Hsu on JDMInside
I have visited many factories: Apexi Japan (I used to work there), Greddy Japan, HKS Japan, and a couple of other tuning parts manufacturer factories in Japan. I was impressed with each one for their manufacturing facilities, R&D equipment, and general success. Just seeing the sheer quantity of parts being produced and the level of technology also impressed me. However, nothing really prepared me for my visit to Cosworth (where I now work).
Cosworth’s UK office is located in Northampton about 50 minutes north of London in the United Kingdom. For those of you who have never heard of Cosworth, it is the winningest engine supplier in Formula 1 of all time. This of course led to wins in all kinds of motorsport including, but not limited to, WRC, various touring car series, Le Mans, various formula car series, and more. Cosworth is also responsible for designing the drivetrains in some of the baddest ass road cars in Europe including the Cosworth Sierra, Ford RS200, Ford RS500 Cosworth, and the Aston Martin DB9 to name a few. With the loss of F1 (no customers), now Cosworth concentrates on aerospace machining, engineering services, race engine design consulting (for many of the companies that you and I worship), oem engine and drivetrain development, and of course, performance parts for road cars (what I do). To learn more about Cosworth, read Cosworth: The Search for Power.
Anyhow, sometimes I talk to people and they actually think that Cosworth pistons are made by CP or Cosworth rods are made by blah-blah or Cosworth this or that is made by this company or that. Sure, a couple parts are out sourced, but they are made to Cosworth’s specifications. Otherwise, Cosworth has 12 factories located on a kind of campus in Northampton. Peep this:
A picture cannot capture the sheer size of Cosworth. This is just one row of machines in pretty damn big building with many more machines.
Here is a Ford Duratec/Mazda MZR crankshaft being rough cut by a huge CNC machine.
Here are the same cranks after the journals have been rough cut.
Here you can see the oiling scheme inside of an F1 crankshaft. Notice that it is nose fed and not journal fed like our street car engines. 20,000rpm, son.
More machines. You have no freaking idea how many machines there are at Cosworth.
Here is the new piston manufacturing line. It is fully automated - you insert forgings and it spits out a piston on the other end in 4 minutes. It can run 24 hours a day unmanned.
The new Subaru EJ25 stroker cranks are on their way and will be available this week.
Down the street a bit are the transient engine dynomometers. One of the cells are used by Mugen. Who says Cosworth has nothing to do with Hondas?
Here is one of the “smaller” transient engine brake dyno rooms. I believe there are 4 transient dynos and 2 standard engine dynos at Cosworth UK. Some of the cells are larger and include transmission dynos.
Here is the famous Cosworth “Octagon”.
This is the giant piston forge.
Inside of the museum are a Ford Sierra Cosworth, an F1 car and some motorcycles. Around the perimeter of the room of touring car engines, formula car engines, production car road engines, and of course a shitload of F1 engines from throughout the years. You’ve never seen so many F1 engines in one place!
You thought that you were all slick with your GT28 turbo, huh? Just remember that Cosworth was using them on production car engines in 1985, son. You think your SR20 or your 4G63 is bad ass? Let me drop some science on your ass: they are more or less copies of the Cosworth YB engine. And in case you didn’t know, the Toyota 4AG is a copy of the Cosworth BD. Don’t think for a second that JDM shit is original.
Anyhow, it was pretty cool to check out Cosworth UK. I work at the US office, which is nice in it’s own right, but Cosworth UK is where the big money’s at. I have to admit, there’s a certain amount of pride I take working at Cosworth with it’s illustrious history. This is kind of a plug, but seriously: the next time you decide which engine component to buy, you should already know which one to choose: Cosworth. Don’t be fucking dumb and choose some small Subaru hack shop’s engine because they won a couple races. Just remember that Cosworth has won MORE.
from Chip @ Vauxsport.com
Compressor maps look properly scarey the first time you see them, but are actually very simple once you know what you are looking for.
Right, first place to start with for this topic is to post a compressor map i guess!
Here is the one for my turbo:
I will attack this one in chunks as bit busy at work doing some incredibally boring calculations for Lexus at the moment which is limiting my time available in one go to write a long post
1) How much power can it make
2) What boost can it make
3) What is the optimum BHP to use this turbo to make
4) What conditions will it surge under
5) Will it be laggy
6) How do i know if its the correct turbo for my engine
1) How much power will it make?
Well the basic way to work this out is that you can make the fairly safe assumption that for every lbs per min of flow you have, you should be able to extract roughly 10bhp (just over in fact), so basically whatever the furthest point to the right is on this map, you drop down to the axis, read the value, and multiply it by 10, that will give you a fairly safe figure for what BHP the turbo can do.
So on this map, we can see that the righthand edge of the islands is just past the 60 mark (about 62 i make it) so potentially it can make around 620bhp on the right engine.
2) What boost can it make
This is another very staightforward answer as basically its just a case of looking at the extreme of the efficiency islands in the opposite direction, ie at the Y axis. So in the case of this turbo, its around 3.3 bar at the top of the island.
That is an ABSOLUTE scale though, ie 1 bar on there is essentially equal to ZERO psi of boos.
So this turbo is therefore safe to 2.3 bar of boost in the right conditions.
3) What is the optimum BHP to use this turbo to make
Well, its slightly a trick question that one, as there isnt one specific figure. The key here is to try and keep to the middle effiency island as this is where the turbo generates least heat and hence you can wind more timing on in the engine, which is best for both power and economy.
So basically anywhere witin the 79% island on this map will be cool.
So from that you can see that the middle of that island is above the 40 value on the bottom axis, this represents roughly 400bhp, so thats a good figure to be aiming for your engine to be making in its midrange, so an engine that sees a lot of use around the 400bhp mark would work very efficiently on this turbo. The centre of the island is at around 2 bar on the absolute pressure scale, so your engine needs to also be making 400bhp in the midrange at around 1 bar of boost. So this turbo is going to work well for a fairly efficient 16v 2 litre engine, or a more moderately tuned slightly larger one.
So something like the vauxhall LET (calibra turbo) engine will just about qualify with the correct manifold and cams etc, or something like a Nissan RB26 (skyline GTR) engine straight out of the box would also be ideal for it.
4) What conditions will it surge under
Well, just in case anyone reading isnt aware what surge is, its basically when the turbo tries to supply more air than the engine is capable of swallowing.
This is observed by a "fluttering" noise coming from the turbo as the air forces its way back through the turbo, this is potentially damaging for the turbo if its a modern ball bearing one as the shaft can bend, and even on older tougher turbos it can present a problem with excess bearing wear or even damaged blades on the fans in the turbo.
As you can see from this picture, the very left hand side of the map (0 bhp effectively) is ALWAYS in the surge region of the graph for this turbo, this means that whenever you back off the throttle, this surge will occur, no matter what the spec of the engine, this is common to all turbos used on cars, and is the reason that manufacturers fit recicrulating dump valves or blow off valves, to allow this pressure to release harmlessly without coming back through the turbo. So to avoid surge, you need to make sure that at no point in time do you allow the turbo to enter that region, other than as you are closing the throttle where you have dump valve to protect the turbo.
So how do you do that?
Well that is actually quite a complicated question, and its all about the correct spec of engine and mapping of your boost to ensure that you dont allow the turbo to ever create more flow than the engine can swallow at any time.
An example of this would be if you had an engine that was making 100bhp@1 bar f boost, this turbo just wouldnt be able to supply that without surging as if you look at 10lbs/min of air flow along the X-axis and cross reference it to the 2 bar absolute value on the Y axis you can see that its firmly inside the surge area of the graph. So effectively, surge will occur if the turbo is put on an engine thats too small in terms of its ability to swallow air, which mainly relates to its size. You CAN still use this turbo on a very small engine, you just have to ensure that it doesnt make boost too soon in the rev range by mapping your boost controller to stop it trying to.
5) Will it be laggy
The simple answer to this is that you cant tell from the compressor map, it just doesnt contain information relating to spooling the turbo it only refers to flow once the turbo is spooled.
Slightly off topic but still relevant:
However while we are on the subject I would to point out that the term "lag" gets misused quite a lot.
The definition of lag that is the "correct" one is that its the time taken for a turbo to spool once the engine is within the boost threshold.
So what is the boost threshold?
Well basically this is the RPM at which the turbo is capable of being spun hard enough by the engine to make positive boost.
So for example, this turbo will require about 3500rpm on a LET engine (i know from experience not from the graph) to get it really spinning enough to see positive boost, now many people would therefore say if they put their foot down at 2500rpm that it was "lagging" for 1000rpm till it started to spool.
This however is a misuse of the term, you are simply outside the boost threshold at this point.
6) How do i know if its the correct turbo for my engine
Well if you have read this far, then you are now fairly well equipped to answer this one for yourself hopefully.
The factors mentioned above about peak power, and optimum usage all come into play here, and very importantly so does the surge line.
If you had a 1000cc nova engine, this turbo would be of no use to you, you need an engine that can make at least a couple of hundred BHP by the time its seeing a bar of boost in order to work with this turbo.
Likewise if you had a 8 litre V10 it would be making the 620bhp this turbo can flow before it even came on boost, so the turbo would be absolutely useless.
So you need to make an educated guess (hopefully backed up with data from similar engines) as to what BHP your engine will make at various points in the rev range for different boost values and plot them accordingly on the graph and see where they sit.
Doing this for a high boost 2 litre engine such as the LET will yield a series of guesses on the map that show you if its suitable or not.
Here is Chip’s take on roughly where an LET will land you on that map, im using the term "roughly" as many factors influence this, both in the spec of the engine itself and in terms of the exhaust housing used on the turbo and the intercooler used etc and even the outside temperature, not least of course is how the turbo is mapped!
So here are my "educated guesses" at some important points to plot on the map, based on a limiter of 8000rpm and using the engine with a set of cams that are suitable for peak power around 7500rpm
A) 1 bar @ 7000rpm = 400bhp
B) 2 bar @ 7000rpm = 600bhp
C) 1 bar @ 4000rpm = 275bhp
D) 2 bar @ 4000rpm = 400bhp
These figures have been rounded off of course, as we are only looking for estimates here, they dont need to be exactly accurate to get an idea for suitability.
So is the turbo suitable for this use?
Well the answer to that is pretty much a yes, but a tentative one as we are going to need to be careful with how soon we allow the turbo to start reaching larger boost figures, as clearly if our estimate that the engine can make 400bhp by 4000rpm on 2 bar of boost is correct, then it will mean that are risking surge from the engine by trying to make the turbo produce more boost than the engine can consume at that rpm efficently enough to match the flow requirements of the compressor.
The only way to REALLY know if the turbo is correct for this engine, is to build it and see of course!
Funnily enough, thats exactly what im doing with exactly this turbo on an LET engine in the near future!
from Mike Rainbird on passionford
One of the worse suspension misconceptions that I see regularly repeated on bulletin boards throughout the internet, is that the stiffer and lower a car is, the better the handling will be. Unfortunately, if it were that easy or true, we would all be driving cars that were basically enlarged go-karts! Obviously if our roads were billiard table smooth, then there would be no issues and we could run higher levels of stiffness. However, we live in the UK where our roads resemble the surface of the moon at worse and subsiding, lorry ridged motorways at best!
So how exactly do you make a Cosworth handle? I really need to briefly give an explanation of the common technical terms that you will see or read about in all suspension development:
Camber: Is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical, as viewed from the front or the rear of the car. If the top of the wheel leans in towards the car, it has negative camber; if it leans away from the car, it has positive camber.
Caster: Is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted forward or rearward from vertical, as viewed from the side. If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is positive; if it’s tilted forward, then the caster is negative.
Toe: When a pair of wheels is set so that their leading edges are pointed slightly towards each other, the wheel pair is said to have toe-in. If the leading edges point away from each other, the pair is said to have toe-out. The amount of toe can be expressed in degrees as the angle to which the wheels are out of parallel, or more commonly, as the difference between the track widths as measured at the leading and trailing edges of the tires or wheels. Toe settings affect three major areas of performance: tire wear, straight-line stability and corner entry handling characteristics.
Bump steer: Is when the wheels steer themselves without input from the steering wheel during vertical suspension travel. The undesirable steering is caused by bumps on the road surface interacting with improper length or angle (or both!) of your suspension and steering linkages.
Roll centre:The point in the transverse vertical plane through any pair of wheel centers at which lateral forces may be applied to the sprung mass without producing suspension roll. In effect, it’s the virtual point about which that end of the body pivots about during roll.
Understeer: Where the front tyres don’t follow the trajectory the driver is trying to impose while taking the corner, instead following a larger radius trajectory outside of the corner.
Oversteer: Where the rear wheels do not track behind the front wheels but instead follow a larger radius (or even slide out) toward the outside of the corner.
Bump: This is what the suspension travel is called when the car body is moving down towards the wheels
Rebound: This is what the suspension travel is called when the car body is moving up away from the wheels.
Next you need to understand the inherent problems that the Cosworth was lumbered with by Ford’s bean counters, by skimping on better suspension geometry, (and partly due to ignorance) to enable them to undercut rivals in the showroom. The 3-door has the best front end suspension set up for Motorsport, where it has a lowered TCA mounting point on the front suspension upright, and thereby effectively raises the front roll centre, improving turn in and resistance to roll. BUT this does cause some loss of stability due to the nervousness this in turn creates, which was the whole reasoning as to why the Sapphire had it’s front roll centre lowered to keep the average car driver happy, as they no longer had to consider homologation for Motorsport use, due to the Sapphire being aimed at a mass market, rather than being a homologation special like the 3-door was!
With the 3-door (or a Sapphire 2wd fitted with 3-door uprights and TCA’s), you can lower the car an inch at the front and the roll-centre drops by about 3 inches, which results in a very nice handling vs stability compromise. You can deduce from this, that lowering a Sapphire by even an inch at the front, has catastrophic effects on the roll centre placement and with further lowering, it often ends up BELOW ground level! In addition all Cosworth variants (in particular the 4×4s) are badly balanced by the standard 18 degree semi-trailing arm equipped rear!
What this creates is a large disparity in front to rear roll centre height, which results in a heavily inclined roll axis, and the rear suspension has a lot of bump steer, (which is the main cause for the inherent ‘push-on’ understeer that Cosworths are plagued with and very little to do with the front end geometry as is a popular misconception). Combine this with the very short virtual swing-arm length of the rear suspension geometry and it results in an unstable setup, with relatively large changes in toe, track and camber for its suspension travel, which is not good!
So ideally, before you even think about changing the dampers and springs, you really need to tackle these problems first. Fortunately there is a cure, unfortunately it is expensive, but if you don’t address this issue, everything else you do will still leave the front and rear axles fighting against each other.
When Ford developed the Cosworth, it was to go racing and rallying in both Group A and Group N categories, which as most people know is what the Cosworth 3dr hatchback and RS500 was designed, built and homologated for. The Group A rules allowed the pick-up points for the suspension to be moved by up to +/-20mm (the RS500 had the benefit of an added optional inner front semi trailing arm mounting bracket in production that gained an additional 60mm!) that allowed Ford to develop a revised semi-trailing arm geometry set-up that improved overall handling, traction and stability by keeping the tyres squarer to the road than the standard set-up! These Motorsport designed rear beams reduced the bump steer, camber change and improved the front to rear roll centre disparity by legally (according to the homologation rules) running lower semi-trailing arm angles of between 16 to 9 degrees! The RS500’s had a big advantage here with the cunning addition of that extra bracket fitted to the production car allowing the Group A rules to be exploited accordingly!
A road car fitted with a low angle (6 degrees in my case!) rear beam is much more resistant to under-steer, has much better traction and straight-line stability, and is fully adjustable for camber and toe (where the original beam is fixed). Fortunately for us, one of the team involved with the development of the Cosworth for racing/rallying, is still producing a fully optimised rear beam, (as in, that the semi trailing arm angles are positioned for optimal geometry without any Group A rule limitations!) to this day and it can be purchased from Ahmed Bayjoo for £1,000.00.
Only now are we ready to move on to the normal suspension components. Obviously everything that you do for a car that shares it’s usage with both road and track needs to be a sensible compromise, if its too hard, it will lose all ride quality and sometimes grip on the road and if its too soft, it will not have sufficient roll control on the track. For it to handle satisfactorily on the road, the first rule of thumb for any suspension system, is that the tyres have to stay in contact with the surface in order for them to provide the necessary grip that is required of them. Obviously on a typical bumpy road, this instantly precludes suspension that is too hard. Unfortunately, it would seem that the majority of the suppliers of aftermarket coil-over kits don’t seem to understand this and supply dampers with spring rates that are notably far too stiff, especially on the rear - and this is just the “show & shine” kits. Even worse, all the budget items are really only ideal for this type of show environment (as is openly admitted by these manufacturers), due to them having fixed bump settings and only a limited range of rebound.
In view of this, you’ll probably be surprised to learn that for an occasional track day car, that I would recommend that you stick with the normal Koni dampers that the majority of Cosworths are already equipped with. However, the crucial thing to achieve Cosworth handling Nirvana, is not to fit budget springs. His name has already been mentioned, but it might surprise you to know that one of the most respected engine mappers in the country, is also as knowledgeable about suspension design as he is ECU software. To that end, Ahmed has designed some springs that he has had specially wound by LEDA, that are specifically matched to the Konis – available in either fast road or track spec, they only lower the car by 10-15mm and give a perfect ride quality / handling compromise.
Also, it is crucial that the suspension isn’t plagued with too much movement, as that will also give bump-steer, so I always recommend that people taking to track should replace the original bushes with some polyurethane items (with the exception of the original Ford trailing arm bushes, which are rose-jointed and should not be changed on a road car, or if they are, too much noise and vibration is transmitted through the chassis, to the extent that you can’t see out of the rear view mirror at certain rpm points!). I personally recommend Powerflex, as they are very good quality and seem more durable than cheaper options.
For those more dedicated track people, the adjustability of a coil-over kit is probably more suited to a more aggressive driving style, with the benefit of easily being able to fine tune the set up (with some time and effort),including allowing the car to be corner weighted for optimum balance (this is where the ride height on each corner is adjusted to shift the weight balance around the car to try and give as close to even balance from front to rear and left to right). This is the route I have gone down and it has taken me a long while and several different spring sets to get the car to handle how I want it to. I opted for LEDAs as the range of adjustment far exceeds the budget set-ups that most people chose (despite these companies also offering track biased systems that are of equivalent quality, price and damping range to the LEDAs).
Where I have strayed from the norm is to go for spring rates that are compromised to a road and track environment. Luckily I had almost got my Sapphire to the point where I wanted it and so I knew that the springs had to be of a lower poundage than the Sapphire. Even so, I still met resistance from the technical people at LEDA and had to be forceful in persuading them that I was sticking to my guns with my choice of much softer spring rates than they considered being ideal.
Luckily my convictions were proven, as on the softest settings the LEDAs were as compliant as my four year old Konis were on their hardest, which mean that the car was a joy to drive on bumpy back-roads (something my Sapphire was never comfortable with) and on the track the car felt absolutely planted with it’s attitude being able to be controlled with the throttle. If you go into a corner too fast and it starts to run wide, the briefest of throttle lift will make the front tuck in. The car is totally neutral – just how I like it. The grip became so good that I was suffering severe tyre wear on the outside edges of the tyres, especially the front; where the tyres were basically scrap after a track-day due to this excessive wear, but the rest of the tyre was perfect. I realised that my driving style required a lot more camber, so after checking out the geometry settings in the Grp A build manual for the Escort, I noticed that these cars run extremely aggressive camber settings when on tarmac. Unfortunately, the standard front end TCAs are incapable of providing settings this aggressive, so adjustable ones had to be sourced. This completed my car’s set-up and as many of you will have seen, despite running treaded road tyres, it always punches above its weight at track days.
Fast Road Geometry settings:
Front: 1.5° negative camber, 2mm toe-in.
Caster as close to 3’30° as you can get.
Rear: 1.5° negative camber (not adjustable on standard rear beam, but will normally be around this depending on ride height), up to 3mm toe-in (using shims or by slotting the mounting points and tack welding the beam in position after welding – as per the Grp N cars).
Track day Geometry settings (you will need adjustable TCAs and rear beam to achieve these settings):
Front: 3° negative camber*, 2mm toe-in.
Caster as close to 3’30° as you can get.
Rear: 2.45° negative camber, 3mm toe-in.
*Please note when running such aggressive negative camber on a track car that is 4wd, longer drive shafts may be necessary and also ball jointed top mounts are recommended, so as not to put excessive load on the damper tubes.
Thanks need to go to Ahmed for all his help and advice over the years in helping me understand the critical necessity for good suspension and without whose help, this article would not have been possible.
from passionford forum
For those of us that have ever used a Haynes Manual (or Clymer or Chilton equivalents) in attempting home maintenance of a car or motorbike. For those who haven’t used a Haynes Manual, these are the books aimed at those who want to fix their own vehicles and which keep qualified mechanics in paid employment putting things right afterwards. They are chock full of photos, diagrams and step-by-step instructions which are obvious if you are a fully qualified motor mechanic, but which are frighteningly sparse on detail for the average Joe in the street who wants to change a set of spark plugs on a 1981 VW Polo ….
Haynes: Rotate anticlockwise.
Translation: Clamp with molegrips (adjustable wrench) then beat repeatedly with hammer anticlockwise. You do know which way is anticlockwise, don’t you?
Haynes: Should remove easily.
Translation: Will be corroded into place … clamp with adjustable wrench then beat repeatedly with a hammer.
Haynes: Remove small retaining clip.
Translation: Take off 15 years of stubborn crud, it ’s there somewhere.
Haynes: This is a snug fit.
Translation: You will skin your knuckles! … Clamp with adjustable wrench then beat repeatedly with hammer.
Haynes: This is a tight fit.
Translation: Not a hope in hell matey! … Clamp with adjustable wrench then beat repeatedly with hammer.
Haynes: As described in Chapter 7…
Translation: That’ll teach you not to read through before you start, now you are looking at scarey photos of the inside of a gearbox.
Haynes: Locate …
Translation: This photo of a hex nut is the only clue we’re giving you.
Translation: Hammer a screwdriver into…
Translation: Go buy a tin of WD40 (catering size).
Haynes: Ease …
Translation: Apply superhuman strength to …
Haynes: Retain tiny spring…
Translation: "Jeez what was that, it nearly had my eye out"!
Haynes: Press and rotate to remove bulb…
Translation: OK - that’s the glass bit off, now fetch some good pliers to dig out the bayonet part and remaining glass shards.
Translation: Start off lightly and build up till the veins on your forehead are throbbing then re-check the manual because what you are doing now cannot be considered "lightly".
Haynes: Weekly checks…
Translation: If it isn’t Loz’d don’t fix it!
Haynes: Routine maintenance…
Translation: If it isn’t Loz’d… it’s about to be!
Haynes: One spanner rating (simple).
Translation: Your Mum could do this… so how did you manage to botch it up?
Haynes: Two spanner rating.
Translation: Now you may think that you can do this because two is a low, tiny, ikkle number… but you also thought that the wiring diagram was a map of the Tokyo underground (in fact that would have been more use to you).
Haynes: Three spanner rating (intermediate).
Translation: Make sure you won’t need your car for a couple of days and that your AA cover includes Home Start.
Translation: But Novas are easy to maintain right… right? So you think three Nova spanners has got to be like a ‘regular car’ two spanner job.
Haynes: Four spanner rating.
Translation: You are seriously considering this aren’t you, you pleb!
Haynes: Five spanner rating (expert).
Translation: OK - but don’t expect us to ride it afterwards!!! Translation #2: Don’t ever carry your loved ones in it again and don’t mention it to your insurance company.
Haynes: If not, you can fabricate your own special tool like this…
Translation: Squeeze with all your might, jump up and down on, swear at, throw at the garage wall, then search for it in the dark corner of the garage whilst muttering "bugger" repeatedly under your breath.
Translation: Squint at really hard and pretend you know what you are looking at, then declare in a loud knowing voice to your wife "Yep, as I thought, it’s going to need a new one"!
Translation: You are about to cut yourself!
Haynes: Retaining nut…
Translation: Yes, that’s it, that big spherical blob of rust.
Haynes: Get an assistant…
Translation: Prepare to humiliate yourself in front of someone you know.
Haynes: Turning the engine will be easier with the spark plugs removed.
Translation: However, starting the engine afterwards will be much harder. Once that sinking feeling in the pit of your stomach has subsided, you can start to feel deeply ashamed as you gingerly refit the spark plugs.
Haynes: Refitting is the reverse sequence to removal.
Translation: But you swear in different places.
Haynes: Locate securing bolt.
Translation: Remember that worrying noise when you drove along the A19 last summer? That’s where you’ll find the securing bolt.
Haynes: Prise away plastic locating pegs…
Translation: Snap off…
Haynes: Remove drum retaining pin.
Translation: Loz every screwdriver in your box.
Haynes: Using a suitable drift or pin-punch…
Translation: The biggest nail in your tool box isn’t a suitable drift! Neither is a screwdriver…too late you wedged the screwdriver in there!!
Haynes: Everyday toolkit
Translation: Ensure you have an RAC Card & Mobile Phone
Haynes: Apply moderate heat…
Translation: Placing your mouth near it and huffing isn’t moderate heat. Translation #2: Heat up until glowing red, if it still doesn’t come undone use a hacksaw. Translation #3: Unless you have a blast furnace, don’t bother. Clamp with mole grips then beat repeatedly with hammer.
Translation: List of all the things in the book bar the thing you want to do!
Haynes: Remove oil filter using an oil filter chain wrench or length of bicycle chain.
Translation: Stick a screwdriver through it and beat handle repeatedly with a hammer.
Haynes: Replace old gasket with a new one.
Translation: I know I’ve got a tube of instant gasket around here somewhere.
Haynes: Grease well before refitting.
Translation: Spend an hour searching for your tub of grease before chancing upon a bottle of washing-up liquid. Wipe some congealed washing up liquid from the dispenser nozzle and use that since it’s got a similar texture and will probably get you to Halfrauds to buy some Castrol grease.
Haynes: See illustration for details
Translation: None of the illustrations notes will match the pictured exploded, numbered parts. The unit illustrated is from a previous or variant model. The actual location of the unit is never given.
Haynes: Drain off all fluids before removing cap.
Translation: Visit bathroom, spit on ground, remove baseball cap in order to scratch head in perplexity.
Haynes: Top up fluids.
Translation: Drink 2 cans of beer and call out a mobile mechanic to undo the damage.
For Added Haynes Fun, go to the first section "Safety First" and read the bit about Hydrofluoric Acid. Would you really trust the advice of a book that uses this form of understatement?
The best one I encountered was how to change a brake sensor in a Ford Fiesta Popular Plus. The photo showing the location of the unit failed to mention the crucial detail of whether the item was located in the engine compartment or inside the car ….. and the helpful photo of what the thing looked like didn’t give the reader any clues!
THE CONDENSED HAYNES MANUAL
All makes and models post-2000
For a modern car chock full of electronics, all that’s in the Haynes Manual (aka "The Haynes Bumper Book of Jokes") is:
Routine Service: Take it to a main dealer and hand over a large amount of cash.
Advanced Service: Open the bonnet. Decide all that stuff is far too scary. Proceed with routine service (see above).
HAYNES GUIDE TO TOOLS OF THE TRADE
HAMMER: Originally employed as a weapon of war, the hammer is nowadays used as a kind of divining rod to locate expensive parts not far from the object we are trying to hit.
MECHANIC’S KNIFE: Used to open and slice through the contents of cardboard cartons delivered to your front door; works particularly well on boxes containing seats and motorcycle jackets.
ELECTRIC HAND DRILL: Normally used for spinning steel Pop rivets in their holes until you die of old age, but it also works great for drilling mounting holes just above the brake line that goes to the rear wheel.
PLIERS: Used to round off bolt heads.
HACKSAW: One of a family of cutting tools built on the Ouija board principle. It transforms human energy into a crooked, unpredictable motion, and the more you attempt to influence its course, the more dismal your future becomes.
MOLE-GRIPS/ADJUSTABLE WRENCH: Used to round off bolt heads. If nothing else is available, they can also be used to transfer intense welding heat to the palm of your hand.
OXYACETELENE TORCH: Used almost entirely for setting various flammable objects in your garage on fire. Also handy for igniting the grease inside a brake-drum you’re trying to get the bearing race out of.
WHITWORTH SOCKETS: Once used for working on older cars and motorcycles, they are now used mainly for impersonating that 9/16 or 1/2 socket you’ve been searching for for the last 15 minutes.
DRILL PRESS: A tall upright machine useful for suddenly snatching flat metal bar stock out of your hands so that it smacks you in the chest and flings your beer across the room, splattering it against that freshly painted part you were drying.
WIRE WHEEL: Cleans rust off old bolts and then throws them somewhere under the workbench with the speed of light. Also removes fingerprint whorls and hard-earned guitar callouses in about the time it takes you to say, "F…."
HYDRAULIC FLOOR JACK: Used for lowering car to the ground after you have installed your new front disk brake setup, trapping the jack handle firmly under the front wing.
EIGHT-FOOT LONG DOUGLAS FIR 2X4: Used for levering a car upward off a hydraulic jack.
TWEEZERS: A tool for removing wood splinters.
PHONE: Tool for calling your neighbour to see if he has another hydraulic floor jack.
SNAP-ON GASKET SCRAPER: Theoretically useful as a sandwich tool for spreading mayonnaise; used mainly for getting dog-doo off your boot.
BOLT AND STUD EXTRACTOR: A tool that snaps off in bolt holes and is ten times harder than any known drill bit.
TIMING LIGHT: A stroboscopic instrument for illuminating grease buildup.
TWO-TON HYDRAULIC ENGINE HOIST: A handy tool for testing the tensile strength of ground straps and brake lines you may have forgotten to disconnect.
CRAFTSMAN 1/2 x 16-INCH SCREWDRIVER: A large motor mount prying tool that inexplicably has an accurately machined screwdriver tip on the end without the handle.
BATTERY ELECTROLYTE TESTER: A handy tool for transferring sulfuric acid from a car battery to the inside of your toolbox after determining that your battery is dead as a doornail, just as you thought .
AVIATION METAL SNIPS: See hacksaw.
INSPECTION LIGHT: The mechanic’s own tanning booth. Sometimes called a drop light, it is a good source of vitamin D, "the sunshine vitamin," which is not otherwise found under cars at night. Health benefits aside, its main purpose is to consume 40-watt light bulbs at about the same rate as 105-mm howitzer shells during the Battle of the Bulge. More often dark than light, its name is somewhat misleading.
PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVER: Normally used to stab the lids of old-style paper-and-tin oil cans and splash oil on your shirt; can also be used, as the name implies, to round off Phillips screw heads.
AIR COMPRESSOR: A machine that takes energy produced in a fossil-fuel burning power plant 200 miles away and transforms it into compressed air that travels by hose to a pneumatic impact wrench that grips rusty bolts last tightened 30 years ago by someone in Dagenham, and rounds them off.
CROW BAR: A tool used to crumple the metal surrounding that clip or bracket you needed to remove in order to replace a 50 pence part.
HOSE CUTTER: A tool used to cut hoses 1/2 inch too short.
a bluecossie.com nyomán
A Ford 1982-ben leplezte le a Sierrát a világ elött.
Az autós újságíróknak hamar eljött az az idő, hogy elhessegessék maguktól a gondolatot, hogy a "kocsonya forma" Sierra a Ford egyik nagy ballépése. Hiába, nem lehet mindenki kedvére tenni. A Ford a legsikeresebb és legerősebb versenyautóját hozta létre, amit valaha is csinált.
1985-ben Stuart Turnert kérte fel Walter Hayes, hogy írjon egy tanulmányt, hogy tudna a Ford európai részlege sikeres lenni az autósportban. Ennek eredményeként felkérték, hogy vegye át az Ford Motorsport irányítását, melyet egy feltétellel vállalt el, tiszta lappal akart kezdeni.
Az egyedülálló RS1700T fejlesztését a C100 sportautóval együtt leállították. Az egyéb csatornákon folyó műveletek, mint az Escort RS1600i Turbo, a verseny Sierra, és a B csoportos rallyautó szintén parkolópályára kerültek.
A Ford nem tudott igazán labdába rúgni az autóversenyzés akkori mezzején: az elsőkerékhajtású Escort RS1600i nem szerepelt jól a rallyban, és semmilyen autóval nem tudtak részt venni a túraautó bajnokságban…pedig a vállalatnak nagy múltja volt a technikai sportokban.
Egy szép nyári napon, Stuart Turner, Ed Blanch és Ed Copolongo (A Ford európai vezetői) társaságában meglátogatták a Cosworth Engineeringet Northhamptonban, elsősorban, hogy megnézzék, hogy halad a Cosworth a Formula 1-es erőforrás fejlesztésével. A F1-es tesztpad mellett észrevettek egy Sierra erőforrást egy egyedi hengerfejjel szerelve. Ez volt az YAA prototípus, ami később egy is boszorkánykodás után lett YBB. Rögtön megkérdezték Keith Duckworthot (ő a Cosworth egyik alapítója) mi is az ott a tesztpadon. Elmondta nekik, hogy egy 16 szelepes, két vezérműtengelyes hengerfej, amiből pár százat terveznek építeni versenycélokra. Ennyit árult el, nem többet.
Miután megnézték a F1 motort, ebédelni indultak a sarki étterembe a Cosworth főhadiszállása melleti sarokra. Turner bedobta nagy ötletét az asztal mellett folyó beszélgetésben: Ha a Ford berakná a Cosworth 16 szelepes Pinto hibridjét egy Sierrába, turbófeltöltéssel, a Rover nem nyerne több túraautó versenyt…
A Sierra Cosworth versenyautóhoz, a Fordnak 12 hónap alatt 5000 darabot kell legyártania. Azért esett a választás a Sierrára, mert a Capri már halott volt, a Granada meg túl nagy. Nem akartak import modellt használni, mint amilyen Andy Rouse (nagyon is sikeres) Merkur XR4Ti-je, mert egy olyan magas szintű bajnokságban mint a túrautóé, a Ford nem engedhette meg magának azt a lazaságot, hogy nem egy helyileg is elérhető modellel indul.
Jim Clark (a sikeres túraautó versenyző) is megkapta a maga szerepét a Sierra Cosworth létrehozásában: A Ford tervezőrészlegén volt egy kép róla és az épp három keréken forduló Lotus Cortinájáról. Sam Toy, a Ford of Britain elnöke, meglátva a képet, azt kérte Stuart Turnertől, hogy a Cosworthnak olyannak kell lennie a Sierrával mint a Lotusnak a Cortinának jópár évvel ezelött. "Pontosan azt kell tenni" - jött a válasz. Ettől a pillanattól a Sierra Cosworthnak lett egy újabb drukkere, aki segít keresztülnyomni az ötletet a gépezeten.
A prototípus 1985-ben készült el, és 1986-ban a Sierra Cosworth megszületett. Az első motorsportos tesztek átlagosra sikerültek, de a hengerfejtömítés sorozatos meghibásodása további munkára késztette a Cosworthot. De amint az őrült tudósok rájöttek, hogy tarthatják a blokkot és a hengerfejet egyben, a Sierra megmutatta a világának (és a Rovernek!), hogy a Ford még mindig tud gyors autókat építeni.
1987-ben 500 db a 5545 Sierra RS Cosworthból átkerült a Tickford műhelyébe, hogy elkészítsék az RS 500-at. Amint a modell megkapta a homologizációt, az összes verseny Sierra átépült az új specifikációnak megfelelően. Valójában ez volt a vég kezdete. Az RS500 feldúlt mindent a túraautó versenysorozatban - az egyetlen autó aminek egyedüli esélye volt legyőzni, csak egy másik RS500 lehetett. Az utolsó túraautó verseny amin az RS500 részt vett 1990-ben volt.
A Cosworthok totális dominanciája miatt, a sportvezetők elhatározták, hogy az egyetlen amit tehetnek, hogy olyan korlátok közé szorítják a Cossiek teljesítményét, amit a többi gyártó is képes elérni. Azóta sikerült eljutni oda, hogy kétliteres "bevásárlóautók" versenyezgetnek egymással.
16 of february. -4 degree Celsius. But a new drift car is born. From another. The old Sierra Cosworth have given his (her?) heart to the 2003 Rallycross Champion Escort Cosworth chassis. Thanks for Tamas Adamecz (Previous owner).
Február 16. -4 fok. Hideg. De egy új autó születik. Két régiből. Az eddig hűen szolgáló Sierra Cosworth és Adamecz Tamás 2003-as Rallycross bajnok autója, egy Escort Cosworth olvad egybe. Egy hátsókerékhajtású Escort Cosworth driftautó születik.
A folyamat a driftgarázsban érhető tetten…
November 10,-én tartja a Magyar Drift Szövetség idei utolsó szervezett edzését az Örkény melletti Euroringen. A jelentkezési lista hamar megtelt, mostmár csak némi jóidőért kell imádkozni. Ha a driftereket nem is zavarja túlságosan az eső, a nézőket annál inkább.
Ez lesz a Driftgarage Sierra Cosworth utolsó útja is….